|I am sending my article published in DV August 15 2011|
Revolution And Counter Revolution
- Nagesh Chaudhary
Editor, Bahujan Sangharsh, Nagpur
Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar wrote about Rvolution and Counter Revolution but this thesis was not completed by him. Had it been completed it would have been the major guide for us today. It is not possible today for us to complete his thesis as he would have done it. But we can visualise the situation today and try to explain in the methodology and stream of his thought process. Here is an attempt, no way comlete but a try to understand today's counter revolution and the answer to it.
The First Counter Revolution: Dr. Ambedkar, calls Buddhism as Revolution and the period prior to that as a counter revolution. If this very point of logic is stretched further prior to the the period of Aryan counter revolution it starts from the period of Aryan aggression on the Indus civilization. Because, Indus civilization, in contrast with the Aryan disorder was an orderly system. It was a system wherein there was no such division of society as devised by the Aryans. Historians say that it was a egalitarian system. There, obviously was no Varna-Caste system or untouchability. So it, too, was a system akin to Buddhist system or proto-Budhhist system. This system was destroyed by the Aryans. What manifested during Aryan conquest was breaking of the system and in that sense it was the first counter Revolution in India.
The progress, the social order that is seen in the Indus civilisation was torn asunder by the Aryans and their own system was established.
Dr. B.R. Ambedkar, also refers to the pre-Aryan India, (He does not directly mention Indus civilisation). He says, "The history of India is said to begin with the Aryans who invaded India, made it their home and established their culture... The political history of India begins with the rise of a non-Aryan people called Nagas, who were a powerful people, whom the Aryans were unable to conquer, with whom the Aryans had to make peace, and whom the Aryans were compelled to recognise as their equals. Whatever fame and glory India achieved in ancient times in the political field, the credit for it goes entirely to the Non-Aryan Nagas. It is they who made India great and glorious in the annals of the world. (Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Writings and Speeches vol. 3 P. 267)
Buddhism was a revolution.
Thus, the Aryans conquest was the first counter revolution India has seen.
Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar in his scheme of writing on 'Revolution and counter Revolution' has said, "Buddhism was a revolution. It was as great a Revolution as theFrench Revolution. Though it began as a Religious revolution it became more than Religious revolution. It became a social and political revolution. To be able to realise how profound was the character of this revolution, it is necessary to know the state of the society before the revolution began its course. To use the language of the french Revolution, it is necessary regime in India." (op cit P. 152)
He has given the picture of the society previous to the Buddhist revolution. He says, "The Aryan community of his (Buddhas) time was steeped in the worst kind of debauchery, social religious and spiritual." (op cit P. 152) The Aryan society was thus a fallen society. There was no order; everything was disorderly, with utter anarchy, indiscipline, immorality and other human vices.
In the chapter on, 'A sunken priesthood' he says, "The priestly profession was monopolised by the Brahmins and he further says this Brahmin priestly class had fallen to the utmost depth of moral degradation." (Op Cit P. 158)
It means, whatever sort of religion was existing then, the degraded Brahmins were at the helm. These degraded people had the leading role and as then the Varna system had been in existence, it seems whole society was degraded, sunken. The state of the people at large must have been the worst in this period. Exploitation of the general population especially of the Shudras, must have been most cruel as cruelty was the mainstay of the Brahmanic system. This disorderly chaotic state of affairs was given a new direction by Goutam Buddha. Disorder was transformed into order by the teachings and preaching of Buddha.
Buddha did not take direct confrontation with the Brahmins. It was anti-Brahmanic value preaching which was accepted by the people of all classes from Brahmins to the low castes. There was no physical fights with the Aryans. It was a fight of ideas, of thoughts of the different path. Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar, therefore, also calls him "the first social Reformer and the greatest of them all..." (op cit. Vol. 3, P. 165) Thus, Buddhist revolution was through a sort of reform which changed the Aryan system.
The Present - Revolution or Counter Revolution?
Only orderly society can not be called a state of revolution. Law and order maintainance is also not a state of revolution.
Revolution should be seen as egalitarian society, the society which gives justice, has fraternity and freedom along with equality.
In the preamble of the constitution of India Dr. B.R. Ambedkar envisaged this situation. But the constitution is a guide to govern., guide to run the state. The government machinary is expected to follow that. But government is not a governing class. As B abasaheb Ambedkar observed in his famous treatise, "What Congress and Gandhi have Done to the Untouchables" "To start with it is well to known who constitute the governing class in India. The governing class in India consists principally of the Brahmins. It is strange that the present day Brahmins repudiate the allegation that they belong to the governing class though at one time they described themselves as Bhudevas. (God on earth). (Dr. B.R. Ambedkar : Writings & Speeches, Vol.9, P. 204)
He further says, "that the Brahmins are a governing class is hardly open to question. There are two tests could apply. First is the sentiments of the people and the second is the control of the administration." (op cit P. 205)
What Dr. Ambedkar meant by 'control of the sentiments of the people' is cultural control Rulers are bound by this Brahmanic culture at present.This class is controlling the administration means the state machinary is run by the Brahmins. That way Brahmins are the governing class.
While presenting the constitution to the nation he also observed that we assure people of political equality as enshrined in the constitution but there will be no social and economic equality.
The situation today is, therefore, not of a revolution as envisioned by him. On the contrary, the hold of the counter revolutionaries is very very obvious.
Hindu Rashtra Theory
The very people who have defeated the Budhist revolution are still holding on. We are often reminded of that infamous name - Pushya Mitra Shunga who masterminded the counter revolution by killing Brihadratha- theMourya king, and how there after the Aryan lot perpetuated criminal and cruel offensive against the Buddhist India and completely wiped it out. This was abetted by the invading Muslim rulers, but during Muslim period also the sway of counter revolutionary Brahmanic forces did not vanished.
Then onwords the situation worsened. The code of Manu was imposed and counter revolution was strengthened with unbound cruelties and inequities. The caste and untouchability were introduced more vociferously than in previous era. The type of untouchability found in India has no perallel in the world. Even white-black racism was not so cruel and inhuman.
The counter revolutionaries were weakened considerably during British regime. But, British regime, though alien was more humane than the Aryan system. During this period alone our saviours like Jotirao Phule, Shahu Maharaj and so also Dr. Ambedkar arose.
Had there been no intervening British rule in India, India would have been ruled by the worst counter revolutionaries, like Peshwas. So, the British rule was a boon to some extent for the untouchables and Shudras of this land. They- the British gave us the chance to enter the doors of education. Had there been no British rule can we say that the personalities like Phule-Ambedkar-Shahu would have emerged in the Peshwa type rule? Impossible. Any revolt against Brahmin rule would have been nipped in the bud along with the personalities leading it. There would not have been any personality like Phule or Ambedkar.
Now this country is free form British rule. Are we rulers now? We have a chance to rule. But experience of last 60 years has before us the picture of political power being in the hands of the Aryan people. The state is democratic on paper but in practice it is a Hindu state under Hindu Nation.
We should know the intrcacies of the concept of Hindu Rashtra (Nation). The most powerfull Aryan - Brahmanic organisation the RSS says India is a Hindu Rashtra. And what do they mean by Hindu Rashtra. Mr. M.S. Golwarkar, the architect of Hindu Rashtra ideology has described in detail what they mean by Hindu Nation.
- a nation controlled by Aryan Race.
- a nation whose national language is Sanskrit.
- a nation whose religion is Hindu.
- a nation whose culture is Vedic.
Race, language, culture and religion are the factors that make a nation and the people who have upperhand in all these aspects are the masters of that Nation.
If we look at all these factors they pertain to the Aryans- the Brahmins.
Their race - their caste the Brahmins is still the highest caste in all respects. No other caste even claim to be equal to it. All other castes try to claim Kshatriya status, like Marathas, or Malis etc. But no caste even imagine of calling itself a Brahmin caste. Even the imagination is low, below Brahmins.
If the topmost importance and prestige given to any language in India today is Sanskrit. The crux of the matter is Brahmins and their allies are the real masters in India. That is Hindu Nation. The state - the government of what ever party ruling at the centre obeys the dictats of this governing caste or this 'nation'. Brahmanic power is above every power in India. Brahmanic culture has imbued in the body of the entire society. This demeaning culture is hounding the erstwhile Shudras and ati-Shudras i.e. OBCs and SC, STs and also the people of these castes in other religions such as Islam, Christanity.
Poverty grows with lowering scale of caste pyramid. The lowest caste, untouchables are still the poorest people. This is true about the people belonging to other religions and those who have embraced Buddhism.
The Hindu nation is not a capitalist state nor it is socialist but binds the people in the bondage - slavery.
So, today, it is the control of the Brahmanic caste over everything. It is a complete state of counter Revolution. How the state (government) is working in India, at whose command it is operating is a measure of the state of affairs.
During Buddhist period say during Ashokas rule the wishes of the common mass of the people were looked upon by the king. The peoples languages - the Pali, the Prakrit had more importance than the Sanskrit language. Buddha Dhamma was the religion of the masses and Hinduism was made secondary, the culture was egalitarian. But today every thing is topsy turvied. Every thing Brahmanic has not only upper hand but upper most hand.
Buddhism why in other Countries only?
Buddhism has entered in many countries in the east and became major religion of these countries. But it was wiped out from India. Why that has happended? I think, this was because in those countries there was no caste-varna system before or after the entry of Buddhism. Buddhism has gone to those countries not to counter the Brahmanic values; so there was no debate over caste, god or other philosophical issues as in India.
Buddhism replaced Vedic-Aryan religion and culture in India. Niether Buddha nor Mauryan emperors destroyed Brahmanic system completely. Nor Brahmins were being treated with contempt or inhumanity by these rulers. The Brahmins were lying low and pounced back when they got the opportunity. Every Brahmin was against Buddha's pure thoughts. Mahayani Brahmins sabatoged it within and Vedic Brahmins opposed it tooth and nail.
Why They Say It Is Hindu Nation?
Right from, Golwalkar through Deoras to Sudarshan to Mohan Bhagwat- Present RSS chief say India is Hindu Rashtra. The proofs of their utterances can be found in their regular statements. K.S. Sudarshan, the present RSS Chief, said, 'India is a Hindu Rashtra.' (Asian Age, Mumbai, April 25, 2000); M.G. Vaidya, ex-spokesman of RSS said, 'This is a Hindu Nation' (in an article in the Hindusthan Times, December 20, 2001) He said the Hindu code Bill applies to Sikhs, Jains and Buddhists.' Further he wants it to be applied to Muslims and Christains.
Can we say India is a Buddhist Nation? Even if we say for the sake of saying so reality is not in our favour.
Here in India today all castes are below Brahmins, all castes are Shudras or ati-Shudras. The reservation demand is on the mercy of the state (government) and the persons in the government are Brahmins or followers of their orders. Here OBCs, Dalits, STs are beggars who have to beg far reservation. Who have to die for paltry demand such as renaming of a university, (Ex. Renaming of Marathwada University after Dr. B.R. Ambedkar But theBrahmins get whole University without agitation on the very day the renaming of Marathwada University was announced, separate University in the name of Swami Ramanand Tirth (a Brahmin) was announced at Nanded in Marathwada. Sanskrit University at Ramtek, Nagpur was established without any sort of agitation). More than 100 Gowaris (tribals) died for demanding reservation but without success. Scores of OBC farmers are committing suicides but the Brahmanic state does not take any effective step and come to their rescue. Because, Shudras have to be half fed, impoverished in the Hindu Nation.
The state on the wishes of this nation keeps Muslims as enemy in the eyes of the people. Every terrorist act is ascribed to Muslims. Hindu nation propogandists say, all terrorists are Muslims. So even Muslims die (Malegaon bomb attack) Muslims are blamed by the state.
Hindu terrorists who exploding bombs and spreading terror through cultural, religious means are not even called terrorists. At the most they are called communalists.
They kill christains openly but are not defamed. The caste culture kills Dalits i.e. the terorist teaching of Hindu nation. The killers may not be upper caste. But their followers, caste pyramid supporters. All these and many more factors prove that this is the situation which can be clearly called counter revolution.
Countering the Counter Revolution
Dr. B.R. Ambedkar gave us the weapon of Buddha Dhamma - for countering the counter revolution. It is the weapon given to the most oppressed in the Indian society. Buddha himself was not one from the opressed people. He was born in the kingly background unlike Babasasheb Ambedkar. There was no untouichability of the same character during Buddha's time. Dr. Ambedkar himself says the type of untouchability existing today has come into existence after the 4th century, in his book 'Untouchables'. He has also said in The Annihilation of Caste that untouchability alone cannot be eradicated unless caste system is annihilated. During Buddha period Buddhism has changed the minds of all classes, icluding Brahmis. Are Brahmins prone to change their position or accept Dr. Ambedkar's preaching as they were accepting Budddha then?
To what extent we have countered the counter revolution? To what extent the Hindu nation has been damaged? Can we visualise the period of Ashoka's empire again in the present century? If they can defeat the Buddhist system which had the backing of the King or Emperor, can they be defeated by the Dhamma taken by the weakest people in this land? Can only Buddhist people defeat the Hindu nation? To go further can only Muslims or Christains or Sikhs defeat Hindu nation? Can any non-Brahmin organisation do so?
What is the fate of Jotirao Phule's Satyashodhak movement? What is the impact of Dravid movement of Periyar Ramasami and what is the impact of all small and numerous organisations, political parties that are striving for dethroaning the Brahmin power?
Not one caste, not one religion, no political party can defeat the present counter revolution. There has to be counter national struggle against the Hindu Nation. The nation based on Naga-Dravid culture, on their language on their own and religions of the oppressed, terrorised people. Hindu nation is the counter revolution stronger than the previous counter revolution, more systematic more entrenched and more lasting.
So, to bring real revolution, this all pervading counter revolution has to be understood completely and bring in the comprehensive alternative. Piecemeal treatment will result not even in piecemial success. This is the challenge before all those who want to counter the counter revolution.
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